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Electrostatic stabilization is based on the mutual repulsion of like electrical charges. In general, different phases have different charge affinities, so that an electrical double layer forms at any interface. Small particle sizes lead to enormous surface areas, and this effect is greatly amplified in colloids. In a stable colloid, mass of a dispersedphase is so low that its buoyancy or kinetic energy is too weak to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between charged layers of the dispersing phase.
Steric stabilization consists in covering the particles in polymers which prevents the particle to get close in the range of attractive forces. Particle settling is hindered by the stiffness of the polymeric matrix where particles are trapped. In addition, the long polymeric chains can provide a steric or electrosteric stabilization to dispersed particles. The rheological shear thinning properties find beneficial in the preparation of the suspensions and in their use, as the reduced viscosity at high shear rates facilitates deagglomeration, mixing and in general the flow of the suspensions.
Commercialized product that is coated on films, glasses, metals and fabrics is fabricated by gravure, micro gravure, slot die, dip or spray. Coating thickness of commercialized product is 100nm~10,000nm
SEM images of active exothermic coated surface on Si wafer by spin-coating.
AFM images of active exothermic coated surface.